Diabetes is a serious illness that lasts a lifetime and everyone can suffer.
It is estimated that 422 million people they live with diabetes all over the world, four times more than 40 years ago, according to World Health Organization (WHO).
Diabetes occurs when the body can not process all sugar or glucose in the blood.
Glucose is not bad, it is the fuel of all cells in the body.
Some tissues, in order to be able to use this glucose, need the action of insulin, which is a hormone produced by the pancreas, which facilitates the entry of glucose into the cell and thus can convert glucose into energy.
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Complications of diabetes can lead to heart attack, stroke, blindness, kidney failure and lower limb amputations.
Despite the risk many people suffering from diabetes do not know about it. But lifestyle changes can prevent this in many cases.
On World Diabetes Day, which is commemorated on November 14, at BBC Mundo we will examine what is The most common doubts that people ask Google about diabetes and We asked three specialists.
1) What are the first symptoms of diabetes? ¿Y in children?
"Typically, the doctor warns the patient that he has type 2 diabetes based on the results of laboratory tests that measure blood sugar levels Most patients with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms, most commonly in patients with type 1 diabetes, when the level remains very high for long time.
It is possible that fatigue, thirst, hunger, excessive urination, blurred vision and weight loss may occur. " Victor Montori, specialist in endocrinology in diabetes at the Mayo Clinic in the United States.
"In children, the type of diabetes is often type 1. Symptoms are usually more intense and occur in less time: intense thirst, weight loss, frequent urination, fatigue, do not do it in the usual way, drowsiness." – José Agustín Mesa Pérez, an endocrinologist and president of the Latin American Diabetes Association.
'In recent decades, we have noted an alarming increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents associated with greater obesity and a sedentary lifestyle.'– Dr Fabiana Vazquez, a member of the Argentine Diabetes Society.
- 1 in 11 people in the world suffer from diabetes, WHO warns
2) When is the blood sugar level dangerous?
"Post, the normal blood sugar level is from 70 to 110 milligrams per deciliter (mg / dl)." After meals, these values increase, but insulin ensures that they return quickly to the normal range (usually 2 hours. Values greater than 180 mg / dL lasting longer than 2 hours are toxic to cells, and if repeated many times, they can cause permanent damage, especially in the kidneys, eyes, heart and nerves of the legs. "
"In the long run, the whole body is affected if the values are high, so people with diabetes should have a blood glucose level of 70 to 180 mg / dl for most of the day." – Dr Fabiana Vazquez, a member of the Argentine Diabetes Society.
"A type 2 diabetes patient may start to dehydrate when the sugar level exceeds 200 mg / dL, but people without any other problem can maintain high sugar levels without much risk when the level is very high, for example above 300 mg / dL, risk it's bigger and needs attention. "- Victor Montori, specialist in endocrinology in diabetes at the Mayo Clinic in the United States.
"You also have to talk about values down, people who have diabetes, even those who have certain complications, should avoid glycemic values below 70 mg / dl both in fasting and after eating." – José Agustín Mesa Pérez, an endocrinologist and president of the Latin American Diabetes Association.
3) What are the differences in type 1 and type 2 diabetes?
"There are 4 types in diabetes classification, but in practice they are expressed as type 1 or 2. Type 1 is usually found in young people under 30 years of age who are lean and have no hereditary history of diabetes."
"Usually this is the case with acute symptoms." Type 2 diabetes usually occurs in adults over 40 years of age, very associated with overweight or obesity, with a waist circumference measured at home above 80 cm in women and 90 cm in men is also associated with other risk factors such as high levels of triglycerides and high blood pressure and fatty liver. "- José Agustín Mesa Pérez, an endocrinologist and president of the Latin American Diabetes Association.
"In type 1 diabetes, proper use of insulin (labor-intensive and expensive work) offers these patients the opportunity to live without restraint." Patients with type 2 diabetes, milder, can control irregularities well with diet, exercise, stress management and medication (pills, injections, insulin). "- Victor Montori, specialist in endocrinology in diabetes at the Mayo Clinic in the United States.
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4) Does diabetes have a cure? Can this be avoided?
"Diabetes can not be cured, but it can be controlled well, a person can live a normal life, there is no way to know who will have diabetes 1 or how to avoid it, while type 2 diabetes has very clear triggers and keeps the weight right, healthy and balanced diet and regular physical exercise can prevent or delay the occurrence in people with genetic predisposition. "- Dr Fabiana Vazquez, a member of the Argentine Diabetes Society.
"Pancreatic transplantation is an aggressive alternative that in many cases solves the lack of insulin in type 1 diabetes." – Victor Montori, specialist in endocrinology in diabetes at the Mayo Clinic in the United States.
"There is no cure and you have to be very careful with liars and charlatans who promise, but it is a perfectly controlled chronic disease, the sooner you will be diagnosed and intensively worked on reducing risk factors, other complications are avoided."–José Agustín Mesa Pérez, an endocrinologist and president of the Latin American Diabetes Association.
5) What foods cause diabetes?
"No, no food that can cause diabetes alone, confusion arises because a prehistoric man has to save energy in order to be able to live and achieve it through the mechanisms of insulin saving."
"But over time and the high availability of food began to appear problems: the consumption of excess energy, which began to develop industrially, and were no longer natural foods, but preserves, for which digestion is not Excess calorie deposit in adipose tissue, in the liver and other structures began to grow, and the conclusion is the development of chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, cancer, etc. "-José Agustín Mesa Pérez, an endocrinologist and president of the Latin American Diabetes Association.
"Proper vegetable intake (both raw and boiled and different colors) and fruit can help balance the diet and incorporate natural antioxidants that help prevent diabetes."
"Fat-rich diets, especially if they are of animal origin, as well as simple carbohydrates (sugars) and food produced, have been shown to be associated with a greater possibility of developing type 2 diabetes. Excessive junk food and snacks are the reasons for the higher frequency with which we detect type 2 diabetes in children. " Dr Fabiana Vazquez, a member of the Argentine Diabetes Society.
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