Tuesday , September 28 2021

Is the superfield really livable?

The presence of life is already possible in the superlands, that is, on planets not much larger than Earth. More and more super-lands are being discovered, such planets have already been found in the ecosphere.

Exoplanets with a composition similar to our Earth, but with a slightly greater mass (ie planets outside the solar system) have been called superlands by astronomers. Planets with a maximum mass of 10 Earth masses are classified in this category.

What does the inside of a superfield look like?

The internal structure of supercountries may vary based on current models. One possibility is an Earth-like structure, in this case the super-earth material also consists of many iron and various rocks. This means that it is like our planet, only in an enlarged version. Oceanic planets, which have particularly high water content, can be much weirder. Under the right conditions, they can be flooded with liquid water, but it may happen that the entire water cover freezes.

Illustration of an Earth-like exoplanetSource: leemage / © Ron Miller / Novapix / Leemage / Ron Miller

It is also possible that water ice constitutes a significant part of the mass of the celestial body. They can be low-density planets, partly ice or liquid matter – perhaps resembling Uranus and Neptune. However, it is also conceivable that the proportions of hydrogen and helium in such celestial bodies are very large and previously lost much more mass to their present state.

With the help of current measurements it is difficult to decide what the composition and internal structure of a super-earth might be. Another important question is whether it is affected by plate tectonics, which is a significant factor in the global material cycle and life formation.

Is there liquid water?

Both air temperature and pressure are critical factors for the presence of surface water. If the atmosphere is too thin and the air pressure on the surface is low, the boiling point will be very low, so the water will boil shortly after the ice melts (similar to Mars where the ice melts at 0 degrees Celsius and +4 The water is already boiling. in degrees Celsius.)

So far, the Kepler spacecraft has been a major contributor to the discovery of exoplanetsSource: NASA / Ames / JPL-CalTech

Exoplanets that are even more interesting than super-Earths are truly celestial bodies similar in size and mass to Earth. The discovery of the first such planets was announced on December 20, 2011. By NASA: discovered two planets (Kepler-20e and f) that are already the size of Earth. However, these planets orbit too close to their stars, so life on them can be practically out of the question.

More and more supercountries are discovered in the residential zone

One such super-earth, which is likely to contain liquid water and may be viable, was discovered in mid-2019 by an international research team.

The Hydra exoplanet in the constellation was spotted using the so-called NASA TESS (Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite). The celestial body is about 31 light-years (2.9328264465 × 1014 kilometers) from Earth.

Star GJ 357 da.NmSource: Jack Madden / Cornell University

The exoplanet was named GJ 357 d and it is believed to be about twice the diameter of the Earth and six times its mass. It is in the outer sphere of its parent star, so scientists say it may have water and possibly life on it.

One of the last observations of exoplanets was in October 2020, when Swiss astronomers discovered two exoplanets using the SAINT-EX observatory in Mexico. The discovery of exoplanets orbiting exoplanets orbiting the red dwarf TOI-1266 is “an important step in the search for habitable worlds,” researchers at the University of Bern and Geneva wrote in a review of the scientific journal Astronomy and Astrophysics.

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