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How effective are the best Covid-19 vaccines and when will they be available

Written by Abhishek De, edited by Explained Desk | New Delhi |

Updated: November 26, 2020 14:00:35

Coronavirus Actor Reacts After Fake Vaccine Injection During Street Performance In Plaza San Martin (AP)

Encouraging results on Covid-19 vaccine trials conducted by leaders in November expressed their hope that an antidote to the first-generation coronavirus is likely to be approved as early as late December or early 2021. Late human mRNA vaccine research ongoing candidates developed by Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna Inc identified success rates as high as 95%, sowing hopes around the world in fighting the pandemic that claimed 1.34 million lives and led to the collapse of the economy worldwide.

Russia also declares that it is 92 percent effective for the Sputnik V vaccine candidate, which is being tested in humans in the mid- and late-stage trials by Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories in India, based in Hyderabad. Shots success indicators far exceed WHO’s recommendation that effective vaccines should reduce disease risk by at least 50%.

Of the dozens of late-stage vaccines, the next data are likely to be released by AstraZeneca Plc before Christmas. Johnson & Johnson says it is on track to deliver data this or early next year.

Latest Coronavirus (Covid-19) Vaccine Updates

Coronavirus vaccine Pfizer-BioNTech

Success rate: Taking the lead in the global search for an antidote to Covid-19, Pfizer Inc said Wednesday that the final results of a late-stage trial of the Covid-19 vaccine, developed with German partner BioNTech SE, show that it was 95% effective. According to Pfizer data, of the 170 volunteers who contracted Covid-19 in Phase 3 trials involving more than 43,000 people, 162 received placebo and only eight received the two-dose vaccine – meaning the vaccine was 95% effective.

Availability: The company applied for emergency approval to the U.S. FDA on Friday and is likely to receive approval for its mRNA-based vaccine candidate BNT162b2 in the second half of December and will begin shipments before Christmas. Pfizer said it produced as many as 50 million doses of vaccines this year, and then produced up to 1.3 billion doses in 2021.

Effectiveness: Pfizer found that the effectiveness of the vaccine was consistent across age and ethnic groups. “The effectiveness in adults over the age of 65 who are particularly vulnerable to the virus was over 94 percent,” the company said.

Side effects: The vaccine was well tolerated and the side effects were mostly mild to moderate, Pfizer said. The only serious adverse event that affected more than 2 percent of vaccinated people was fatigue, which occurred in 3.7 percent after the second dose; and a headache that occurred in 2 percent.

Price: Pfizer will reportedly charge $ 20 per dose of the vaccine. ? Express Explained is now available on Telegram

Pfizer found that the effectiveness of the vaccine was found to be consistent across age and ethnic groups (AP)

Moderna vaccine against coronavirus

Success rate: US biotechnology company Moderna, whose vaccine uses the same mRNA technology as Pfizer, reported an experimental injection of Covid-19 showed an effectiveness of 94.5% according to the preliminary results from her late attempts. Results were based on 95 infections that were noted two weeks after the second dose was administered to the volunteers.

Effectiveness: Moderna vaccine in the elderly produce antibodies that neutralize viruses at levels similar to those seen in younger adults, according to a study published in the New England Journal of Medicine.

Availability: Moderna has announced that it will seek an emergency license for its vaccine candidate in high-risk groups. It is expected to have around 20 million doses destined for the United States by the end of 2020.

Side effects: Moderna has did not reveal any serious safety concerns. According to Science, an independent commission that conducted a provisional analysis of the Moderna study found that serious side effects included fatigue in 9.7 percent of participants, muscle pain in 8.9 percent, joint pain in 5.2 percent, and headaches in 4 . 5 percent.

Price: Moderna said their vaccine will cost $ 37 (more than Rs 2,750).

AstraZeneca-Oxford vaccine for coronavirus

Oxford University expects to release late-stage research results before Christmas, Reuters reported. More specifically, Oxford said it would begin a preliminary analysis of data from its late study after 53 infections among volunteers.

Effectiveness: Phase 2 clinical trial results, published Thursday in the medical journal The Lancet, revealed that vaccine candidate AZD1222 or ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 elicited a strong immune response in adults aged 56-69 years and over 70 years of age. “ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 appears to be better tolerated by older adults than younger adults … and has similar immunogenicity in all age groups after the booster dose,” the statement said.

An employee handles Covid-19 test samples in the Delhi Center

Availability: The Serum Institute of India, which is running Phase 3 vaccine trials in India, said the Oxford vaccine (named Covishield in India) should be available to healthcare professionals and the elderly by around February 2021, and by April to the general public. SII CEO Adar Poonawalla said 30-40 crore doses of the vaccine will be available by Q1 2021. The Pune-based company is likely to apply to the Indian drug regulatory agency next month for emergency approval.

Side effects: So far, no serious complaints, reactions or adverse events have been reported in the Indian part of the study. The Lancet study mentions that adverse reactions to the vaccine were mild, with the most common effects being pain and tenderness at the injection site, fatigue, headache, fever, and muscle pain.

Price: The Serum Institute said a vaccine, which can be stored at 2 ° C to 8 ° C, will cost between Rs 500 and 600 per dose to the general public. In other parts, it may cost less than £ 3 per dose.

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