New research on Yale scientists suggests that baked toast bones and dinosaurs have the same characteristics – both of these substances consist of chemicals that transform the original protein into something new under the right conditions. Understanding this process can help scientists learn how soft tissue cells in dinosaur bones can survive hundreds of millions of years.
Dinosaur bones are much older, about 100 million years old, and sometimes retain organic structures similar to cells and blood vessels. Various attempts to resolve this paradox did not provide conclusive answers.
Scientists, thanks to this research, want to understand fossil proteins. They then examined 35 samples of fossil bones, egg shells and teeth to examine whether they retain proteins containing soft tissues, learn about their chemical composition and determine under what conditions they can survive for millions of years.
Researchers have found that soft tissue is stored in samples from oxidative environments such as sandstones and tiles, marine limestone converted into glycin end product and advanced lipoxidation (AGE and ALE), which are resistant to degradation and degradation.
They are also structurally comparable with chemical compounds that color the dark skin on the toast. AGE and ALE are characterized by a brownish color that stains fossils of bones and teeth containing them. These compounds are hydrophobic, which means that they are resistant to the normal action of water and have properties that make them difficult to consume by bacteria.
Researchers made a discovery using Raman microspectroscopy to document fossils and describe the structure of released soft tissue. During this process, laser energy directed to the tissue causes the vibration of molecules transferring spectral fingerprints to existing chemicals.
Co-author Derek Briggs, professor of geology and geophysics Yale G. Evelyn Hutchinson and curator of the Natural History Museum Yale Peabody, said: "This study shows areas where soft tissues are found in fossil bones, including sandstones deposited in rivers, sand dunes and plaques sea limestone. "
'Our results show how chemical changes explain the fossils of this soft tissue and determine the type of environment in which this process occurs. Pay is a way of targeting settings in the field where this protection can take place, expanding important sources of evidence for ancient vertebrate biology and ecology. "
The research team included scientists from Yale, the American Natural History Museum, the University of Brussels and the University of Bonn. The article was presented in the journal Nature Communications.