Sigmund Freud was born in a Jewish family, but from an early age he became not only an atheist, but also the one who wanted his Jewish descent to be separated from his psychoanalytic science. If someone was to be a scientist, he believed, and you can not circulate in religion. And yet, at the age of 81, two years before his death, he published "Moses and Monotheism," in which he essentially tried to psychoanalyze the death of Moses, calling him the "tribal familiy pater" of Judaism. Freud repeated the Old Testament death of Moses, who originally claimed that at the top of the mountain and overlooking the "promised land" of Israel, Moses simply died at the age of 120. Freud, however, said that the followers of Moses murdered him in a frustrated rebellion, and this is the fault inherited by the Jews for thousands of years, which still leads them towards religion to gain spiritual consolation and perform a kind of historical penance.
"If Freud has always kept himself away from religion, at the end of his life he publishes" Moses and Monotheism, "in which he returns to his Jewish roots," says Philippe Comar, multimedia French artist and scientific advisor. Freud exhibition at the Museum of Jewish History and Art in Paris.
But it is not entirely correct that Freud always kept himself away from religion. He had previously changed Judaism into his psychoanalysis. In an earlier book, "Civilization and its dissatisfaction," Freud claimed that religion created a final conflict within people, because preaching against violence was contrary to the natural human impulse of trying power and sex in any way. And, in a particularly Freudian footnote in "Five-Year Boy Phobia Analysis," a medical case study, Freud suggested that through castration anxiety, the Jewish circumcision tradition was "the deepest unconscious root of anti-Semitism." All this makes up a man who, trying to to avoid the spiritual aspects of the religion in which he was brought up, he seemed to use his tenants and historical implications with relative frequency.
Until February 10, 2019 "Sigmund Freud: From Looking to Listening" is also the celebration of the 20th anniversary of the Museum of Art and History, as well as an attempt to get to know the Jewish perspective of Freud. There are more than two hundred drawings, books and scientific instruments from Freud, but also from Gustav Courbet, Gustav Klimt, Rene Magritte and Marek Rothko. Curator Gerard Regnier, an art historian and member of Academie francaise, who has the pseudonym "Jean Clair", also includes loans such as drawings by Egon Schiele and Klimt from the Vienna Leopold Museum, as well as the famous "The Origin". the world "by Courbet from the Orsay Museum on the Seine.
Unexpectedly for the Paris exhibition, the series opens in Paris, in the Salpetriere Hospital, where Freud, 29, worked with Jean-Martin Charcek, a doctor and professor whose conversations on "hysteria" helped to form the basis of Freud's concept of psychoanalysis. Freud worked only for Charcot for four months – he was on a short scholarship – but the exhibition focuses on Charcot's research on hypnosis and hysteria, trying to emphasize the cultural French culture of Freud – his curiosity is apparently more French than Austrian. It is true, however, that Freud found a particularly eager audience in Paris salons, where the literary community from Western Europe generally accepted its developing psychoanalytic theories more than the scientific community of that time.
But this exhibition, more than the proving of the French bona fides Freud, is interested in its Jewishness. His father's family was Hasidic Jews and, as he admitted in his "autobiographical study", his latent Jewish identity inspired him both nonconformity as a scientist and a certain form of morality, in which sexual desire would always be some form of law or belief system. This, perhaps more than anything else, helps to explain most of his psychosexual theories that "From looking to listening" emphasize well.
Indeed, the deeply penetrated psychoanalysis of Freud's relationship with his Jewishness is not fully here, but the surface is scratched. And it seems that it goes deep. Even Freud himself seemed surprised at how much his Jewishness affected him. In a letter from 1931. To his friend David Feuchtwang, a doctor, he confessed to his religious identity, which was increasingly influencing him as he grew older. "At one point in my soul, in a very hidden corner, I am a fanatical Jew," Freud wrote as a 75-year-old. "I am very surprised to discover myself as such despite all my efforts to be unprejudiced and impartial. What can I do against him at my age?
"Sigmund Freud: From Looking to Listening" is available at the Museum of Jewish Art and History in Paris until February 10, 2019. More information: www.mahj.org/en