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Contest for developing a vaccine for emotional confrontation – Sciencetimes

In the 1940s, some middle-class families in the United States spent their children in the mountains or in the desert. It was caused by a terrible epidemic of intelligence, hearing, eyesight and muscle dysfunction.

What's more, unlike the plague, the disease had a strange feature that middle-class children who grew up in a clean environment were more likely to catch than dirty slums. The epidemic was polio, a virus called polio that attacked the brain or spinal nerves, causing neurological problems.

Franklin Roosevelt, the only fourth-line president in American history, was one of the polio victims. At 39, 12 years before becoming president, he was paralyzed with polio complications, and in 1938 he founded a charity foundation to combat polio.

Jonas Sock caused the polio vaccine to be inactivated with formaldehyde. © public domain

Jonas Sock caused the polio vaccine to be inactivated with formaldehyde. © public domain

The foundation raised funds from a 10-cent silver fundraiser to promote polio research, which was a young medical scientist Jonas Sock from the University of Pittsburgh. After 16 hours a day, Sock finally managed to develop a polio vaccine in 1952.

Three types of polio virus were cultured in monkey kidney cells and killed with formaldehyde to produce inactivated vaccines. He convinced patients to take part in the experiment, showing that the vaccine was first given to him, his wife and children.

In 1954, a large clinical trial of the vaccine developed by Socha was carried out. One million children aged 6-9 received a polio vaccine, and another million at the same age received a placebo. As a result, the vaccine proved safe and effective.

It falls on less than 1/10 of patients after vaccination

During that time, more than 57,000 polio cases were reported in the United States alone, and after the prevalence of antidarpar vaccine, this number fell to less than one-tenth. Korea had about 2,000 polio patients per year up to the 1950s, but this number was steadily reduced after polio vaccination began in 1962, and in 2000 was declared eliminated by the World Health Organization.

Sok was chosen as the 20th century person in the 20th century by the American current weekly Time in 1993. In 2014, on the hundredth anniversary of his birth, October 24 was marked World Polio Day in memory of his achievements. . California also commissioned architect Louis Kahn to set up the Soc Biology Institute in San Diego to celebrate his work.

Albert Seyvin develops live polio vaccines by reducing polio virus toxicity. © public domain

Albert Sabin develops a live polio vaccine by reducing polio virus toxicity. © public domain

However, some wondered about the bacterial vaccine developed by Sok. At that time, many medical scientists believed that only live viruses produce immune responses. One of the characters was Albert Sabin, who managed to develop a new polio vaccine in 1955, when Soka vaccination began.

Saviin reduced toxicity by growing wild, highly toxic polio virus in monkey kidney cells. This weakened pathogenic polio virus is resistant to polio by multiplying the virus in the intestine.

The live vaccine developed by Seybin had several advantages over the Sok vaccine. Unlike vaccinated vaccines, which must be injected first, they are convenient because they are oral vaccines in the form of syrups or sweets. Therefore, you do not have to worry about needle infection and can be used in remote areas of developing countries where there is no doctor. In addition, the vaccine should be vaccinated three times, but the live vaccine only had to be eaten once, so it was cost-effective.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology was already awarded in 1954

Since 1961, the live Sabina vaccine, vaccinated over 100 million people and tested for its effectiveness and safety, has been used worldwide instead of the Sok vaccine since 1962. But neither Sokh nor Sabin received the Nobel Prize. The most likely reason people suppose is that in 1954 the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded for polio.

Unlike bacteria that grow well in all conditions, viruses are difficult to grow and only grow in living tissue. In particular, it is known that polyoviruses are only cultured by human embryonic brain tissue, i.e. Neurons. It was also difficult to develop the vaccine. In 1949, Enders, Weller and Robins from the Boston Children's Hospital managed to grow polio virus in skin, muscle and intestinal cells, as well as in brain tissue.

The success of Sok and Sabina in developing polio vaccines was also due to the use of new culture technology discovered by these three people. In other words, the Nobel Committee might have thought that Soch and Seybin's contribution was nothing new than their work.

On the other hand, some believe that the Nobel Committee would remove both of them as prime minister because of the constant disagreement between Sokh and Seybin. Sok was able to obtain funds because the president of the Polio Fight Foundation was also a supporter of the vaccine.

Seybin, who is eight years older than Sock and has been studying polio for a long time, had many dislikes. What's more, watching the Foundation promote Soch as a miracle scientist who raises funds for vaccines was also an unbearable insult to Seybin.

Soybin did not hesitate to blame Soch directly. "Anyone can do the same as Sock" or "If Juice has developed a vaccine, I have developed a vaccine myself." Initially, feelings, which were only a difference in opinions about the development of the vaccine, eventually became serious ideological conflicts.

But in any case, the polio that plagued humanity long enough to find traces in ancient Egyptian mummies was eventually lost by two men.

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