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Athletes: watch out for heat stroke in summer

Running for a long time in very hot and humid weather is not without risk. Each year, the resuscitation ward of the University of Toulouse receives patients suffering from heat stroke associated with physical exercise. 30% to 50% die.

You certainly crossed. Between 12 o'clock and 4 o'clock, when the heat is more stuffy, running enthusiasts or highly trained athletes wander on asphalt or paths. Sometimes without knowing the risks associated with intense sports exercises in a hot and humid environment.
"They feel that this only happens to others," regrets Dr. Laurence Lavayssière, a nephrologist from the organ transplant department at Rangueil University Hospital in Toulouse, who receives emergency patients every year. heat stroke associated with physical exercise. 'In 2018, we received five patients in the nephrology resuscitation ward itself, all of whom were under the age of 65, were athletes and ran, rode a bicycle or wandered, of which three died. heat stroke is between 30% and 50% mortality and 30% risk of neurological sequelae, "says the doctor.

Changes can be declared up to 36 hours after training

"When it is very hot outside, thermoregulation is difficult, and if the atmosphere is humid, you cannot sweat without the wind, it switches to heat stroke. hydrate, take at least two sips of water every 15 minutes Signs should alert: confusion, chills when it is hot and watered during the race, nausea, But beware: all these symptoms do not necessarily occur after crossing the finish line, and changes can be reported to 36 hours after exercise, "says Dr. Marie-Angèle Robic, a hepatologist at CHU Rangueil.

Alcohol, fatigue, aggravating factors

If fragile people of extreme age are particularly vulnerable and therefore observed during heat wave episodes, a young adult who makes an effort does not know or forget about this information. "In recent years, we've seen patients who are candidates for an urgent transplant who died before they arrived at the operating theater, including people with a high level of training, including a young soldier. borders, "slides professor Fabrice Muscari, a hepatobiliary surgeon at the University of Toulouse Rangueil.

When the body temperature rises, an inappropriate inflammatory reaction is triggered, which leads to damage to all organs

And the boundaries are not the same for everyone. An athlete undergoing diuretic, antihypertensive or psychotropic treatment will need to pay even more attention. The same applies when the age rises or when the patient has consumed alcohol or a lack of sleep. "In the presence of risk factors, the penalty will decrease faster. Significant prognosis, the risk of neurological sequelae depends on the time spent above body temperature of 40 ° C. Because, when it increases, the reaction produces an unacceptable inflammation that causes damage to all organs (kidneys, liver, brain, heart, digestive tract) "warns Dr. Laurence Lavayssière.

Heat stroke, medical emergency

A heat stroke called "exercise" (after intense exercise) is a medical emergency.
This is called heat stroke when the body's core temperature exceeds 40 ° C and is associated with neurological disorders when there is no infection.
Signs that must warn you during training or a sporting event: sudden fatigue, intense thirst, red but dry skin, headache, nausea, vomiting, chills, confusion, loss of consciousness.
What to do: seek medical help as soon as possible or dial 15 18 or 112, shade and / or coolness. While waiting for medical help, cool a person, spraying with cold water and ventilating, do not give paracetamol without doctor's advice.
In preventionAthletes, especially those who provide long-lasting efforts (marathon, half-marathon, trail running, orienteering, hiking, cycling) are advised to practice these disciplines in the coolest hours or refrain from voting. in hot weather or when humidity is very important. Water regularly, refueling if available. Note, some medications (diuretics, antihypertensives, psychotropics) may promote heat stroke.

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