Violence against women is a reality that takes place in various fields, both public and private. Unfortunately, home is one of the places where the highest rates of violence against women are concentrated.
According to ENDES 2018, 63% of Peruvian women have been victims of violence ever committed by a husband or partner while being sections with the highest numbers: Cusco, Apurímac, Puno and Pasco. Although this figure has fallen by 2.2 percentage points compared to 2017, work is still needed to change this reality.
Most of the victims did not ask for help because they felt that it was not necessary, were ashamed to speak or did not know where to go. In fact, 44.8% decided to turn to loved ones and only 28.9% sought help from an institution.
Main forms of domestic violence
The three most repetitive forms of domestic violence are mental and / or verbal (58.9%), physical violence (30.7%), which is manifested in bouncing and bumping, and sexual violence (6.8%), according to official data.
In the case of psychological violence, the most common recurring situations at home are jealousy, insisting on knowing where the woman is going, humiliation, obstacles to making friends, and accusations of infidelity.
Consequences and prevention
The World Health Organization (WHO) indicates that violence negatively affects women's physical, mental, sexual and reproductive health, and in some cases may increase the risk of contracting HIV.
Emotively, women's safety and self-confidence are reduced. There may be cases of depression, post-traumatic stress and other anxiety disorders, insomnia and eating disorders. You can even get suicidal ideas.
If we consider that domestic violence includes both violence against women and violence against children, another consequence is for sons and daughters.
WHO indicates that children growing up in an aggressive environment may suffer from behavioral disorders and emotions. In addition, children who grow up, seeing violence as the right way to solve problems, more often repeat it in adulthood.
In the case of girls who were exposed to violence by their partner against their mothers, were mistreated or grew up on the basis of male privileges and the subordination status of women, they are more likely to be victims of violence as an adolescent couple.
Preventing this problem requires synergies between different sectors, such as education and health. Some strategies address the economic and social emancipation of women, gender equality training, group and participatory education, and critical reflection on gender inequality and power.
Some points to be considered by WHO are:
- End discrimination against women, which persists in the rules on marriage, divorce and custody.
- Improving women's access to paid employment.
- Formulate national plans to combat violence against women.
- Increase awareness that violence against women is unacceptable.
- We provide comprehensive services, sensitize and train health service providers to meet the needs of victims in a comprehensive and empathic way.