World Diabetes Day began in 1991 in the face of a rapidly growing number of diabetics around the world. The date of November 14 commemorates the birthday of Fryderyk G. Banting, who he discovered with Charles Herbert Best in 1921. The life hormone insulin, according to the statement of the Uri cantonal hospital.
On this day, the world's attention should be paid to diabetes, its causes and its impact on the lives of people affected by the disease. "First of all, it should become clear that diabetes is not a problem for a few, but more and more people in the world must live with this disease," writes the Swiss Diabetes Association (SDG).
Is early detection of diabetes possible?
Esther Hunkeler: Certainly in type 2 diabetes, previously known as adult diabetes. If someone belongs to the risk group, it makes sense to regularly check the blood sugar level by the family doctor. In this way, you can quickly detect high blood sugar and initiate initial actions, for example in the context of lifestyle changes through nutritional counseling. There is no early detection of type 1 diabetes, which occurs mainly in childhood and adolescence, and can generally develop at every stage of life. The reason for this is that the pancreas suddenly stops producing insulin and it is unpredictable.
risk groups? So how does anyone notice that he has diabetes?
Esther Hunkeler: A person has an increased risk of developing diabetes, for example if they are overweight, suffer from high blood pressure and high cholesterol. These factors are compounded when you have close relatives who are already suffering from diabetes – for example a father, mother or siblings. However, people who have normal weight, but are burdened with family, can also develop diabetes. In addition, studies have shown that regular physical activity can be an effective way to prevent diabetes.
Cold is also a sweet time. What does this mean for diabetics?
Esther Hunkeler: Food and drink have a direct effect on blood sugar levels. In diabetic counseling I often get questions about nutrition, which are then discussed in nutritional counseling. In diabetic counseling, I explain the patient's clinical picture. They also learn how to correctly measure blood sugar. In addition, patients should learn to understand their individual diabetic therapy, be it the way the drug works or the insulin regimen. If someone has to inject insulin, he will also be trained by me. The aim of diabetic counseling is that the patient is able to manage diabetes well with the help of a doctor.
Patrik Jauch: Sweet things do not have to be completely erased from the diet, even with diabetes. Typically, sweets and desserts are planned immediately after the main meal instead of in the meantime.
Does eating too many sweets cause diabetes?
Patrik Jauch: People often say that but they are wrong. The main factor is overweight or, in particular, excessive abdominal fat. It has the greatest impact. And then it must be said that not only white sugar has an effect, but rather the total amount of carbohydrates that also affects fructose, starch supplements, malt sugar or milk sugar. Excessive intake may, in addition to affecting mass and abdominal fat, also have an independent effect on when type 2 diabetes "breaks off". Supply with measurement – including sweets – but also belongs to a balanced diet.
Generally for nutrition. How does the risk of a disease really depend on the diet?
Patrik Jauch: A well-balanced diet is essential for maintaining good health. It's not just about eating vegetables, but about the overall balance. Today, it is known that for a long time you can avoid various diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and many others, but not 100 percent. Nutrition or malnutrition is also just a risk factor, such as heredity, environment, smoking and so on.
Is diabetes a disease of well-being?
Esther Hunkeler: Yes, part of this is certainly the well-being of our society. A large part of the population conducts a sedentary job. In addition, food is always and everywhere available, especially food with very high energy and high calorie. These two factors promote overweight, which in turn is a risk factor for diabetes.
In the morning after getting up, a cup of coffee, espresso. What do you say as a dietician?
Patrik Jauch: Breakfast is important. People who eat breakfast have a lower risk of getting diabetes, obesity or its consequences, even according to the latest research. That's why I would not cancel my coffee. Especially in the case of coffee, it is assumed that it also has a positive effect on the cardiovascular system. However, in nutrition advice, I would consider what would most likely imagine food for breakfast. At most, I would set a specific goal for the next meeting.
Cherish healthy, avoid diabetes. Can you say that?
Patrik Jauch: Avoiding is probably a bad word, but delaying it. So if you eat a healthy diet, so-called type 2 diabetes, called age sugar, only has 90 instead of 60 if you bring a strong family disposition. However, type 1 diabetes has nothing to do with lifestyle. It can affect both at a young age and in older age, even if the lifestyle is healthy.
Should diabetics play more sports?
Esther Hunkeler: Yes, absolutely. Regular physical activity is an important part of the treatment concept because physical exercise can lower blood sugar even without insulin. The movement within 150 minutes per week has a positive effect on the metabolism of sugars. It does not matter if it is 60 minutes of swimming twice a week plus 30 minutes of cycling at the trainer's home at home or 30 minutes of fast running after dinner four times a week. And of course it does not matter if someone moves more than 150 minutes a week.
Are there any special dietary recommendations for diabetes?
Patrik Jauch: The basis today is the recommendations of a normal, balanced diet. However, the "right" diet corresponds to this appropriate therapy. Whether they just have to pay attention to their lifestyle, take pills or inject insulin, they differ fundamentally from the recommendations. It's important to know about the options and then decide how much you can or want to do. The one who wants to make the most of the change of lifestyle wants to implement particularly important cornerstones in everyday life, which is also fine. That is why we recommend individual consultations instead of very general information.
Can a person come to your hospital if he has a question about diet and health?
Patrik Jauch: Yes, in the case of diseases like diabetes, every person has the right to six to twelve nutritional consultations and nine consultations about diabetes in a calendar year. They are taken over by the basic health insurance if you have a medical prescription. It is therefore worth discussing the possible allocation with the family doctor. (Pd / ml)