6 Super Earth found in light years! It will become the second closest exoplanet for the solar system TechNews


Let us applaud! After half a century of debate, research conducted by the Carnegie Institute of Science in the United States lasted 20 hours and eventually proved that there is a super-earth, called Barnard Star b, only 6 light years from Earth. 99%. When other independent studies have been successful with other detection methods, Barnard Star b will become the second most closest exoplanet to the solar system.

Currently, the nearest star system for the solar system is the three-star system South Gate II (also known as Alpha Centauri, English name Alpha Centauri), which is located 4.3 light years away, the closest exoplanet on Earth is the South Gate II system. In Proxima Centauri b carried by Proxima Centauri, the circulation period lasts only 11.86 days.

Now the astronomical team at the Carnegie Institute of Science has collected 20 years of research data and is surprised that we have a 99% chance to discover a new world: the world's super-world Barnard just 6 light years away. (Barnard & # 39; s Star b, or GJ 699 b)!

Barnard's star, as the name suggests, is Barnard's Star, a very small star of the red dwarf, about 14% of the mass of the Sun, located near the constellation beta star, just 6 light years from Earth. He is very much appreciated for his characteristic features, for example, he is the fastest star in all known stars, sometimes called Runaway Star, and he is motivated. It is 1 times faster than the flying star Ursa Major.

▲ Image of the artist above the ground "Barnard Star b" around the mother star. (Source: ESO)

In the 1960s and 1970s, the astronomer Peter van de Kamp once claimed that Barnard Star should have a gas giant planet, mainly because he discovered the perturbation of Barnard's self-creation. Every 230 days, Barnard's star will sway, suggesting that it can be influenced by the gravitational force exerted by its gigantic planet in orbit. Some astronomers have accepted his claims, but another group of astronomers has observed opposition to claims by Peter van der Camp, including George & # 39; Gatewood and Heinrich Eichhorn.

Until now, the Carnegie Institute of Science team has a high level of confidence to support Peter van der Camp's point of view.

The team used the radial velocity method to detect planets, using a total of seven instruments, such as the ESO 3.6 m high-energy telescope (HARPS) and the UV of a very large telescope Spectrograph on ultraviolet and optical glass (UVES), CARMENES spectrometer from the Great European Telescope .

The principle of the radial velocity method is that the planet is in the process of orbiting the star, if its mass is large enough, planetary gravity is enough to cause a small motion of the mother star, not only the star's gravitational force will affect the planet, but the gravity of the planet will also turn. Impact on the stars.

The new star orbital star star, Barnard, lasts 233 days, which coincides with the period of perturbation of Barnard's star. The team estimates that the mass of this gigantic planet is at least 3.2 times the mass of the Earth, and the surface temperature is around minus 150 ° C. The energy emitted by the Nader star is only 0.4% of the Sun, so the Barnard b will become the second closest to the Earth, but the degree of habit can still be better than the nearest neighbor.

The test must also be confirmed by other independent research groups, such as the Lingri method, but the team at the Carnegie Institute of Science confirms that the planet is 99% real. A new generation of space and ground telescopes will be launched after 2020, for example the James Webb Space Telescope, and some may even directly depict the Barnard Star bi and measure its spectrum, such as the NASA telescope with the wide field infrared (Wide Field) Infrared telescope (WFIRST ), Gaia ESA etc.

The new article was published in the journal Nature.

Note: The star's star control refers to the change of the star's position relative to the center of mass of the solar system over time.

(Source: Source: European Southern Observatory)

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